发新帖

星点水龟(Clemmys guttata)常见疾病与应对措施(下)---节选译文

  [复制链接]
1803 1
星点水(Clemmys guttata)常见疾病与应对措施(下)肤蝇
肤蝇症在某些地区会集群出现。肤蝇一般将卵产龟龟的头侧部位,虫卵孵化为幼虫,它们一般表现为腮腺旁或四肢上的小肿突。用手术刀轻轻划开肿突,挤压出其内白色粘稠的糊状物幼体。清除幼体后,在窗口处必须涂抹新孢霉素软膏以预防感染。术后的龟龟不得整日处于水中,以免新孢霉素软膏被水冲掉。故在此期间,给龟龟补水显得尤为重要,我建议将龟龟置于水族缸或是其他类似容器中,底部铺设湿润毛巾,顶部一英尺(30.5cm)外加设热灯。饱含水的湿毛巾会在加热灯的作用下蒸发,湿气可以保持龟龟皮肤湿润,容器的底部可以有1/4英寸(0.6cm)深的浅水,一方面可以湿润毛巾,一方面可以让龟龟饮用,同时还不会使其头侧的伤口处沾湿。保持龟壳的温度在华氏84°到92°之间(28.9℃-33.9℃)。具体的温度数值可以通过温度探测枪测量,温度探测枪在当地电器超市即可买到。清除肤蝇幼虫对于新手来说并不简单,我强烈建议你先去兽医处咨询,在独自操作前让兽医先演示正确手法。

715ee5ab56754d4087bef231b27712b2.jpg
广义来讲,肤蝇也属于体外寄生虫的一种,幼虫营皮下寄生生活史,配图为肤蝇幼虫
真菌
真菌可能造成星点水龟的感染。从外观上看,可能导致龟龟的皮肤变灰或是变白,真菌感染足以致命。真菌可以像藤蔓一样蔓延至龟龟全身。发现真菌感染的个体需要被迅速转移出水同时确保龟龟不致脱水。真菌的生长需要湿润的环境,所以只有保证龟龟的皮肤不再湿润,其上感染的真菌才会死亡。但这需要花费很长的时间,所以我建议使用盐酸特比萘芬软膏进行治疗。盐酸特比萘芬软膏是抗真菌感染十分有效的非处方药,这种药膏可以使真菌感染的皮肤表层脱落,进而导致真菌的脱落,尽可能每天涂抹一次。将龟龟置于玻璃容器中,底部铺设干的纸巾,保证环境温度大约华氏80°(26.7℃),放入龟龟之前,在真菌可能存在的地方充分均匀涂抹盐酸特比萘芬软膏,然后将龟龟置于其中几日。在此治疗过程中,每天将龟龟的头部浸入水中五分钟左右以使其补水,确保不要用加热灯照射龟龟,因为龟龟置于干燥的纸巾之上,有很高的脱水致死性。此外,我推荐一种有效预防真菌感染的产品,名叫“Black Jungle Fungus Guard.”。将其溶解于饲养龟龟的水中,同时提供一处晒背地点,让龟龟可以干身,确保将真菌感染扼杀于襁褓。
a38aff8eb8e9d2e7d1ddc54f2e4d83d0.jpg
背甲被真菌严重感染的星点水龟(C. guttata),常发生于通风较差的人为饲养环境中
5d829c00441bcd2deb30191a9a2e43ac.jpg
文中作者提到的认为对治疗真菌感染十分有效的非处方药,盐酸特比萘芬乳膏,我国各大药房亦均有售
腐甲
各种龟龟品种以及龟龟壳甲的各处均有可能罹患腐甲。腐甲一开始表现为灰色的炎症小点,腐甲产生的原因,多半是在外伤情况下导致了有机体的侵入。这些有机体在壳甲角质下的骨板中生长,并逐步侵蚀骨板,穿透体腔,导致更加严重的感染,并足以致命。在晒背场所不足的情况下,腐甲同样可以构成真菌感染。一旦发现腐甲,务必立即用清水清洗患处,并保持局部干燥,配合抗生素使用,如新孢霉素软膏。
    腐甲同样可能由于龟龟壳甲遭受粗糙表面磨损,或是跌落于尖锐物上,被强势个体攻击造成创伤或导致感染等诸多情况所致。龟龟身上的严重磨损,需要妥善包扎并保护起来,包扎前,要确保伤口已清洗完毕。
   腐甲的另外一个处理办法是可以使用磺胺嘧啶银,是人用烧伤抗菌软膏,此药物为法定药物,你可以从兽医处购得,这种软膏已知在龟龟炎症和壳甲感染的症状中具有疗效。用药前,要确保感染区域已清洗完毕,之后将药膏均匀充分地涂抹于患处。上好药的龟龟,置于底部铺设湿毛巾的容器中干养,每日重复上药,直至甲壳上的感染部位好转。如果您不能充分理解以上叙述,请务必咨询当地兽医。
74e7f4620c38bb42aaad8bcba095bb7a.jpg
缘盾及后侧肋盾严重腐甲个体,且感染情况已波及后肢,针对不同原因造成的腐甲及感染,建议饲养者采取有针对性的处理措施,或咨询有经验的兽医
白眼
某些情况下,星点水龟的眼睛会变得浑浊或是发白,这很可能是食物中缺乏维生素A所致,维生素A的缺乏可以在三个方面影响龟龟的视觉:其一是使视紫红质合成受阻,泪腺细胞角化,进而影响骨骼发育,最终导致视神经发育受阻;其二是影响生殖细胞,上皮细胞和骨骼;其三是影响细胞分裂的速度(klingenberg,1995)。白眼治疗起来并不难,一般较常用眼用软膏治疗,可以很轻易的从当地兽医处获得。小心的将覆盖眼部的脓样物质挤出,注意不要损伤龟龟的眼部造成视力受损。移除脓样物后,涂抹眼用软膏,期间保证龟龟离水,治疗期中,可以间或给龟龟淋些淡盐水,一般这样处理几日,白眼即可痊愈,过多的盐会伤害到龟龟的眼睛,所以在配置盐水时需注意浓度应较低。

9b15ca0793f7d7e14806ecfb6c5c8a31.jpg
罹患白眼的星点水龟(C. guttata)个体,且脓样分泌物已遮蔽大部分角膜
脱水
只需通过观察龟龟的眼睛和龟龟蜷缩的前肢你就可以发现龟龟是否饲喂充足。如果你发现龟龟眼睛下方有轻微的凹陷,大多数情况甚至伴有下眼睑陷入,那么你的龟龟多半是脱水或者过度饥饿了。在这种情况下,你的龟龟需要浸泡至少20分钟以补水,并且需要少量喂食。星点水龟是水生龟类,所以一般来说鲜少会有脱水个体。然而这种情况还是会在龟龟的运输途中,或是被移出饲养环境的产卵个体中发现。

fd321876b91d389294364b6b0302846b.jpg
脱水的星点水龟(C. guttata)幼体,常见于长途运输的幼体及长期处于离水环境个体
营养不良
星点水龟可能由于多种原因造成营养不良,可能是缺钙,缺乏维生素A、维生素B、维生素C、维生素D、维生素E等等,正确的饲喂,是保证龟龟免受营养不良困扰的首要前提。如果想你的龟龟体型出众,需要饲喂你的龟龟包括各种小鱼,昆虫,小型啮齿类动物,德彩®;Reptomin龟粮或是其他市售食材,以及绿植。当然,宠物店卖的维生素粉剂也可以在食物中添加。我也经常使用鱼肝油添加到龟龟的食材中,并将其置于岸边,龟龟看到后便会出水摄食,要保证龟龟回水前一部分鱼肝油在其口内溶解。或者,你也可以直接撬开龟龟的嘴巴,滴加少许,这样你可以确保每只龟龟都有可知的摄入量。鱼肝油中富含维生素A和维生素D
7871c4bd5031d8100d23d7fd885bbfbe.jpg
人工饲养下,如果自然食材选择受限或不甚丰富,可用多种人工饲料或虾干饲喂星点水龟,以保证人工饲养个体营养的均衡摄入
肺萎陷
肺萎陷可以通过龟龟游泳的姿势予以辨认。一般来说,肺萎陷的症状是龟龟游水时身体倾斜或两侧动作不对称,一般来说没有特别的办法可以治愈此类疾病。你最好将龟龟置于3-4英寸深(7.6-10.2cm)的水中饲养,并且注射抗生素,诸如拜有利®。

ed6dbbb5ebdf8842e1f371af97a3a930.jpg
左肺部出现气胸肺萎陷的肯氏丽龟(Lepidochelys kempii)二维轴向CT扫描胸片最有效的避免你的龟龟死亡和免受病痛折磨的办法,是保证饲养水质的清洁,确保水的pH值在适当范围(在放入龟龟之前需要预先确定水的pH值,否则将会削弱龟龟的免疫系统)。给你的龟龟提供健康的饮食,提供适宜的环境温度,保证环境中有晒背场所,且底床深浅有致,使龟龟可以轻松爬出水面。如果你对于龟龟的疾病和创伤治疗是个新手,那么我建议你在采取治疗行动前务必与兽医商议确切步骤。
尐野呆呆/译卓玛/图原文:Bot-fly: Bot fly infestations are seen in some areas. The fly lays an egg, usually on the side of a turtle's head. The egg hatches into a larva. It usually presents as a swelling in the parotid area on the head, or on the limbs. This larva can easily be removed with a scalpel by gently slicing the side of the lump and squeezing the puss or white paste-like substance out. After the bot fly larva is removed, it is mandatory to place Neosporin in the open wound to prevent infection. The turtle should not be placed in the water for an entire day to prevent the Neosporin from being washed out. During this tune, it is ideal to make sure your turtle stays hydrated, so I would recommend placing the turtle in a container or aquarium with a soaked towel on the bottom with a heat lamp no closer than a foot away. The soaked towel, which contains water will start to evaporate and pass by the turtle's body keeping it hydrated. About 1/4 of an inch of water is what I place on the bottom of the container which soaks the towel to allow the turtle to drink but not get the side of its head wet. The temperature of the turtle's shell should be between 84° F and 92° F. This can be monitored with a temp-gun, which can be easily picked up at your local Radio Shack. Removing Bot fly larvae is not an easy task for beginners. It would be highly recommended to find a veterinarian to show you how to do it before you try it on your own.

Fungus: Fungus can become a problem in Spotted Turtles. It is usually a white or gray looking substance that attaches itself to the skin of the turtle and it can be fatal. Fungus can grow like a vine and take over the entire turtle's body. The first thing to do when fungus is noticed on your turtle is to remove the turtle from the water and dry it out but don't dehydrate the turtle. Fungus is fed through moisture, so if its skin is unable to be moist or wet, the fungus eventually dies, however this will take a very long time, so I recommend treatment with Lamisil. Lamisil is definitely the best over-the-counter product to use for fungus. Lamisil is an anti-fungal cream that will peel the outer skin off of the turtle, causing the fungus to fall off. You should probably only apply it once per day. The best way to set up the turtle is in a container or terrarium with some dry paper towels on the bottom in a room with a temperature of about 80° F. Before placing the turtle down on the paper towel, spread the Lamisil, covering the entire area of where the fungus exists. Then place the turtle in the terrarium or container for a couple days. During this time you have to put the turtle's head into a bowl of water for about five minutes each day to drink and stay hydrated. It is important that the turtle does not have a heat lamp over its head during this process. Due to the fact that the turtle is sitting dry on paper towels, there is a much higher risk of dehydration and death. To prevent fungus, you can pick up a product called Black Jungle Fungus Guard. This is mixed with the water that you keep your turtle in. Make sure you also provide a basking spot to allow the turtle to dry its skin, which also prevents the fungus from starting in the first place.

Shell rot: Shell Rot can appear anywhere on a turtle's shell and it is common in all turtle species. Shell rot appears as a sore or gray spot on the shell. What happens is that abrasions and small scratches actually provide entry for organisms. These organisms take hold of the living bone beneath the kerati-nous covering of the shell. The organisms then erode the bone, which can lead to penetration of the body cavity, causing serious infections, which can even be fatal. It can also form as a fungus infection, which is caused by inadequate basking. Once you notice shell rot, it is best to clean the area with clean water, let it dry, and then apply some antibiotics such as Neosporin.

Shell rot often arises when a turtle rubs up against a rough surface, falling on a sharp object, or being attacked by a predator causing a cut that gets infected. Deep erosions and scrapes on the turtle may need to be sealed or covered with a patch. Before any treatment is done to cover the wound, it is important that the tissues have been cleaned and the turtle is treated.

Another treatment used for shell rot is Silvadene, which is an antibiotic cream used on humans to treat burns. This cream is a prescribed medication, which you can get through your veterinarian. This cream is known for treating sores and shell problems in turtles. Before treating, it is important that you rinse off the turtle on the affected area. Then the cream should be applied over the entire area of shell rot and the turtle placed in a small container with a damp towel on the bottom. It should be reapplied every other day until the shell sores begin to heal. If this remains unclear to you, then you should definitely contact your local veterinarian for some advice.

Cloudy Eyes: Sometimes a Spotted Turtle's eyes may become cloudy or turn a whitish color. This can occur due to lack of Vitamin A in the diet. Vitamin A can affect vision on turtles in three different ways: One is by limited rhodop-sin formation, which affects changes in the lacrimal cells and cornea which later affects bone development that can eventually lead to pinching the optic nerve. Another way is by affecting reproduction cells, epithelial linings and bones. And the third way is affecting the rate of cell division (Klingenberg, 1995). Cloudy eyes can be treated easily. It often requires the usage of eye ointment, which can be obtained by your local veterinarian. Squeeze out any white pus that covers the eye, but be very careful, you don't want to damage the eye and affect their vision. After removing the pus, simply apply the ointment as directed. Leave the turtle out of the water when the ointment is on the eye. Sometimes you can soak a turtle in a tub with slightly salty water and the eyes have been known to clear up in a couple of days. Too much salt might injure a turtle's eyes, so be careful to keep the solution only slightly salty.

Dehydration: Just by looking under the eye and by looking in front of the hind legs, you can tell whether a turtle has been offered plenty of food and water. If you see a slight indentation underneath the turtle's eye, almost as if the bottom eyelid is sucked in, then your turtle is either dehydrated or starving. At this point the turtle needs to be soaked in water for at least 20 minutes and offered some food. Spotted Turtles live in water so it is very rare that you find a dehydrated Spotted, however this still occurs during transportation of the turtle or when turtles are taken out of their existing enclosures for other purposes such as egg-laying.

Nutrition deficiency: Spotted Turtles can be nutrition deficient in many ways; they can lack calcium, Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, etc. It is very important that your Spotteds are fed properly to avoid having any problems being deficient of their nutrients. The best way to make sure your turtles are in tip top shape is to make sure you offer them a variety offish, insects, very small rodents, Reptomin and other commercial foods, and greens. Of course pet stores sell the vitamin supplement powders, which can be placed on their food. I actually use cod liver oil in liquid form and I place it on their food just on the water's edge, so the turtle sees it and comes out of the water to get it, at least allowing some of it to dissolve in the turtle's mouth before washing off when it hits the water. Or you can gently pry the turtle's mouth open and drop some in there. That might be easier and plus you know for sure that each turtle is getting it. Cod liver oil contains large amounts of Vitamin A and Vitamin D.

Collapsed Lung: A collapsed lung is noticed while a turtle is swimming. Symptoms include the turtle swimming with a tilt or a lop-sided motion. There aren't too many ways you can treat your Spotted. The best thing for your turtle would be to keep it in 3-4 inches of water and use injections of an antibiotic such as Baytril.

All together the best thing to do to prevent your Spotted Turtle or turtles from dying or getting sick is to make sure the water is extremely clean, the pH is at a comfortable level (which can be determined by finding out the pH level prior to obtaining the turtle, which will prevent weakening of the turtle's immune system), feeding your Spotted Turtle a healthy diet, providing the proper temperatures needed with a basking spot and maintaining a shallow depth for the turtle to be able to get to the top for air. If you are a beginner with treating turtles for disease and injuries, then I would advise you to consult your veterinarian before acting to try and save your turtle's life.

                    

举报 使用道具

回复

精彩评论1

行云子  龟神  发表于 2017-1-26 00:11:05 | 显示全部楼层
不错的文章。
携手共进,共管同行。

举报 使用道具

回复
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册

本版积分规则

更多

客服中心

187-065-72257 客服电话:周一至周日8:30-20:30

公众平台 站长微信
手机H5站 手机H5站

广告预约

187-065-72257
QQ咨询: 9: 00-23: 00
快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表